Why do we concern ourselves with organisms that reside below the surface of the water? The focus of much of my interests in aquatic ecology deal with the more subtle, difficult-to-see organisms, the macroinvertebrates. Macroinvertebrates are organisms that lack backbones; instead, they have either a waxy cuticle on their outer skin layer or they have shells, such as snails and clams. Many of these organisms live at the bottom of lakes and streams and wetlands, but they need some sort of shelter to survive. One way we can provide shelter and foraging space for macroinvertebrates and fish is through building artificial reefs. Artificial reefs are structures that are intentionally placed in marine and freshwater ecosystems to enhance populations of fish and associated macroinvertebrates.